Language & Minorities in Europe. Credit: 3 or 4 hours. Survey of regional and immigrant minority language use, policies, and planning across Europe. Focus on political and social issues, such as language regimes, education, loss, and maintenance. Two immigrant languages, Turkish and Arabic/Berber, and four indigenous language families: Balto-Slavic with Estonian, Celtic, Romance with Basque, and Slavic with Hungarian. Taught in English.